Since independence on 15th August 1947, India is fighting against the dual problem of illiteracy & poverty. Both of these problems are inter-related. Any country of the world or any state of a country looks forward to eradication of illiteracy and poverty as these two are symbol of backwardness of a state or country. Poverty is directly related to illiteracy as illiterate people have limited option of employment as lack of awareness, scale of skills and application knowledge is limited. So if any state could do solve illiteracy issue it could be a milestone in the progress of that state.
Before we think of eradicating illiteracy it would be worthwhile to list causes of illiteracy.
1. The first & foremost cause of illiteracy is poverty. Food, clothes, & shelter is basic need of a family. One thinks beyond food, clothes and shelter only when one has access to all these three, of course health is also the fourth factor but it is taken care of on its own if one has reach to quality food and hygienic shelter.
2. Parents of poor children engage their children as well in the earning of bread as early as possible in the hope that by enough earning they can invest in clothes, shelter & health and thereafter can think of educating the coming generation, but they are not able to get rid of this vicious cycle as inflation goes on and commodities go out of their buying range as a result poor remains ever poor as hard earned money is mostly spent on health owing to nurturing in unhygienic conditions. Therefore, the present efforts by the Govt. to ensure food security for all may prove to be an acumen “against ills of poverty and illiteracy”.
3. Govt. will do a good deal if it could also solve the problems of shelter for poor people as they will then be at liberty to go for education by all means and devote themselves & their children for this purpose only.
4. Lack of proper infrastructure is another hindrance in doing away with illiteracy. At some places schools are situated at far away places and parents do not dare to send their children to these far away institutions. Opening of educational institutes at easily reachable places will encourage parents and children to fulfill their dreams of getting educated.
5. Then there is the evil of gender bias. Parents are unwilling to get their daughters educated as they think it a futile exercise as they think that the girl is not going to stay with them forever and more educated girl is more dowry for her has to be procured and more investment in marriage have to be made for.
6. Lack of qualitative productive & innovative education system and if it is available then it is expensive for the poor people. The skill education is also lacking in the rural area.It is available only in the cities.
After education poverty is major concern. Poverty means backward and poor people who live below the poverty line. The people whose daily income is less than Rs.28.66 fall in this line. Poverty is a disease in the society leading to problems like crime,low paced development etc.People below poverty line live in unhygienic conditions and are prone to diseases, which causes health hazards.
Causes of poverty
1.High population growth rate is one of major reasons of poverty in India which further leads to high level of illiteracy, poor health care facilities and lack of access to financial resources. High population growth also affects the per capita income and makes per capita income even lower.
2 The increase in prices of basic commodities is another reason . A person below the poverty line finds it difficult to survive.
3.Caste system and unequal distribution of income and resources is another reason of poverty in India.
4.Unskilled labour is also a major reason.These people have to work more at lower prices , just because they are unskilled.A minimum daily wage must be fixed for such workers.
Poverty must be eradicated from India as every person has the right to live a healthy life.Efforts must be made both by the government and the people for upliftment of the poor and needy.